Atomic A*tom"ic, Atomical A*tom"ic*al, a. [Cf. F. atomique.] 1. Of or pertaining to atoms. 2. Extremely minute; tiny. Atomic philosophy, or Doctrine of atoms, a system which, assuming that atoms are endued with gravity and motion, accounted thus for the origin and formation of all things. This philosophy was first broached by Leucippus, was developed by Democritus, and afterward improved by Epicurus, and hence is sometimes denominated the Epicurean philosophy. Atomic theory, or the Doctrine of definite proportions (Chem.), teaches that chemical combinations take place between the supposed ultimate particles or atoms of bodies, in some simple ratio, as of one to one, two to three, or some other, always expressible in whole numbers. Atomic weight (Chem.), the weight of the atom of an element as compared with the weight of the atom of hydrogen, taken as a standard., Binary Bi"na*ry, a. [L. binarius, fr. bini two by two, two at a time, fr. root of bis twice; akin to E. two: cf. F. binaire.] Compounded or consisting of two things or parts; characterized by two (things). Binary arithmetic, that in which numbers are expressed according to the binary scale, or in which two figures only, 0 and 1, are used, in lieu of ten; the cipher multiplying everything by two, as in common arithmetic by ten. Thus, 1 is one; 10 is two; 11 is three; 100 is four, etc. --Davies & Peck. Binary compound (Chem.), a compound of two elements, or of an element and a compound performing the function of an element, or of two compounds performing the function of elements. Binary logarithms, a system of logarithms devised by Euler for facilitating musical calculations, in which 1 is the logarithm of 2, instead of 10, as in the common logarithms, and the modulus 1.442695 instead of .43429448. Binary measure (Mus.), measure divisible by two or four; common time. Binary nomenclature (Nat. Hist.), nomenclature in which the names designate both genus and species. Binary scale (Arith.), a uniform scale of notation whose ratio is two. Binary star (Astron.), a double star whose members have a revolution round their common center of gravity. Binary theory (Chem.), the theory that all chemical compounds consist of two constituents of opposite and unlike qualities., Cell Cell, n. [OF. celle, fr. L. cella; akin to celare to hide, and E. hell, helm, conceal. Cf. Hall.] 1. A very small and close apartment, as in a prison or in a monastery or convent; the hut of a hermit. The heroic confessor in his cell. --Macaulay. 2. A small religious house attached to a monastery or convent. ``Cells or dependent priories.' --Milman. 3. Any small cavity, or hollow place. 4. (Arch.) (a) The space between the ribs of a vaulted roof. (b) Same as Cella. 5. (Elec.) A jar of vessel, or a division of a compound vessel, for holding the exciting fluid of a battery. 6. (Biol.) One of the minute elementary structures, of which the greater part of the various tissues and organs of animals and plants are composed. Note: All cells have their origin in the primary cell from which the organism was developed. In the lowest animal and vegetable forms, one single cell constitutes the complete individual, such being called unicelluter orgamisms. A typical cell is composed of a semifluid mass of protoplasm, more or less granular, generally containing in its center a nucleus which in turn frequently contains one or more nucleoli, the whole being surrounded by a thin membrane, the cell wall. In some cells, as in those of blood, in the am[oe]ba, and in embryonic cells (both vegetable and animal), there is no restricting cell wall, while in some of the unicelluliar organisms the nucleus is wholly wanting. See Illust. of Bipolar. Air cell. See Air cell. Cell development (called also cell genesis, cell formation, and cytogenesis), the multiplication, of cells by a process of reproduction under the following common forms; segmentation or fission, gemmation or budding, karyokinesis, and endogenous multiplication. See Segmentation, Gemmation, etc. Cell theory. (Biol.) See Cellular theory, under Cellular., Cellular Cel"lu*lar, a. [L. cellula a little cell: cf. F. cellulaire. See Cellule.] Consisting of, or containing, cells; of or pertaining to a cell or cells. Cellular plants, Cellular cryptogams (Bot.), those flowerless plants which have no ducts or fiber in their tissue, as mosses, fungi, lichens, and alg[ae]. Cellular theory, or Cell theory (Biol.), a theory, according to which the essential element of every tissue, either vegetable or animal, is a cell; the whole series of cells having been formed from the development of the germ cell and by differentiation converted into tissues and organs which, both in plants ans animals, are to be considered as a mass of minute cells communicating with each other. Cellular tissue. (a) (Anat.) See conjunctive tissue under Conjunctive. (b) (Bot.) Tissue composed entirely of parenchyma, and having no woody fiber or ducts., Cellular Cel"lu*lar, a. [L. cellula a little cell: cf. F. cellulaire. See Cellule.] Consisting of, or containing, cells; of or pertaining to a cell or cells. Cellular plants, Cellular cryptogams (Bot.), those flowerless plants which have no ducts or fiber in their tissue, as mosses, fungi, lichens, and alg[ae]. Cellular theory, or Cell theory (Biol.), a theory, according to which the essential element of every tissue, either vegetable or animal, is a cell; the whole series of cells having been formed from the development of the germ cell and by differentiation converted into tissues and organs which, both in plants ans animals, are to be considered as a mass of minute cells communicating with each other. Cellular tissue. (a) (Anat.) See conjunctive tissue under Conjunctive. (b) (Bot.) Tissue composed entirely of parenchyma, and having no woody fiber or ducts., Corpuscular Cor*pus"cu*lar (k?r-p?s"k?-l?r), a. [Cf. F. corpusculaire.] Pertaining to, or composed of, corpuscles, or small particles. Corpuscular philosophy, that which attempts to account for the phenomena of nature, by the motion, figure, rest, position, etc., of the minute particles of matter. Corpuscular theory (Opt.), the theory enunciated by Sir Isaac Newton, that light consists in the emission and rapid progression of minute particles or corpuscles. The theory is now generally rejected, and supplanted by the undulatory theory., Dingdong theory Ding"dong` the"o*ry (Philol.) The theory which maintains that the primitive elements of language are reflex expressions induced by sensory impressions; that is, as stated by Max M["u]ller, the creative faculty gave to each general conception as it thrilled for the first time through the brain a phonetic expression; -- jocosely so called from the analogy of the sound of a bell induced by the stroke of the clapper., Electro-magnetic E*lec`tro-mag*net"ic, a. Of, Pertaining to, or produced by, magnetism which is developed by the passage of an electric current. Electro-magnetic engine, an engine in which the motive force is electro-magnetism. Electro-magnetic theory of light (Physics), a theory of light which makes it consist in the rapid alternation of transient electric currents moving transversely to the direction of the ray., 2. That which is sent out, issued, or put in circulation at one time; issue; as, the emission was mostly blood. Emission theory (Physics), the theory of Newton, regarding light as consisting of emitted particles or corpuscles. See Corpuscular theory, under Corpuscular., Fermentation theory Fer`men*ta"tion the"o*ry (Med.) The theory which likens the course of certain diseases (esp. infectious diseases) to the process of fermentation, and attributes them to the organized ferments in the body. It does not differ materially from the accepted germ theory (which see)., 2. A state of agitation or excitement, as of the intellect or the feelings. It puts the soul to fermentation and activity. --Jer. Taylor. A univesal fermentation of human thought and faith. --C. Kingsley. Acetous, or Acetic, fermentation, a form of oxidation in which alcohol is converted into vinegar or acetic acid by the agency of a specific fungus or ferment (Mycoderma aceti). The process involves two distinct reactions, in which the oxygen of the air is essential. An intermediate product, aldehyde, is formed in the first process. 1. C2H6O + O = H2O + C2H4O Note: Alcohol. Water. Aldehyde. 2. C2H4O + O = C2H4O2 Note: Aldehyde. Acetic acid. Alcoholic fermentation, the fermentation which saccharine bodies undergo when brought in contact with the yeast plant or Torula. The sugar is converted, either directly or indirectly, into alcohol and carbonic acid, the rate of action being dependent on the rapidity with which the Torul[ae] develop. Ammoniacal fermentation, the conversion of the urea of the urine into ammonium carbonate, through the growth of the special urea ferment. CON2H4 + 2H2O = (NH4)2CO3 Note: Urea. Water. Ammonium carbonate. Note: Whenever urine is exposed to the air in open vessels for several days it undergoes this alkaline fermentation. Butyric fermentation, the decomposition of various forms of organic matter, through the agency of a peculiar worm-shaped vibrio, with formation of more or less butyric acid. It is one of the many forms of fermentation that collectively constitute putrefaction. See Lactic fermentation. Fermentation by an unorganized ferment or enzyme. Fermentations of this class are purely chemical reactions, in which the ferment acts as a simple catalytic agent. Of this nature are the decomposition or inversion of cane sugar into levulose and dextrose by boiling with dilute acids, the conversion of starch into dextrin and sugar by similar treatment, the conversion of starch into like products by the action of diastase of malt or ptyalin of saliva, the conversion of albuminous food into peptones and other like products by the action of pepsin-hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice or by the ferment of the pancreatic juice. Fermentation theory of disease (Biol. & Med.), the theory that most if not all, infectious or zymotic disease are caused by the introduction into the organism of the living germs of ferments, or ferments already developed (organized ferments), by which processes of fermentation are set up injurious to health. See Germ theory. Glycerin fermentation, the fermentation which occurs on mixing a dilute solution of glycerin with a peculiar species of schizomycetes and some carbonate of lime, and other matter favorable to the growth of the plant, the glycerin being changed into butyric acid, caproic acid, butyl, and ethyl alcohol. With another form of bacterium (Bacillus subtilis) ethyl alcohol and butyric acid are mainly formed. Lactic fermentation, the transformation of milk sugar or other saccharine body into lactic acid, as in the souring of milk, through the agency of a special bacterium (Bacterium lactis of Lister). In this change the milk sugar, before assuming the form of lactic acid, presumably passes through the stage of glucose. C12H22O11.H2O = 4C3H6O3 Note: Hydrated milk sugar. Lactic acid. Note: In the lactic fermentation of dextrose or glucose, the lactic acid which is formed is very prone to undergo butyric fermentation after the manner indicated in the following equation: 2C3H6O3 (lactic acid) = C4H8O2 (butyric acid) + 2CO2 (carbonic acid) + 2H2 (hydrogen gas). Putrefactive fermentation. See Putrefaction., Germ theory Germ theory 1. (Biol.) The theory that living organisms can be produced only by the development of living germs. Cf. Biogenesis, Abiogenesis. 2. (Med.) The theory which attributes contagious and infectious diseases, suppurative lesions, etc., to the agency of germs. The science of bacteriology was developed after this theory had been established., Germ Germ, n. [F. germe, fr. L. germen, germinis, sprout, but, germ. Cf. Germen, Germane.] 1. (Biol.) That which is to develop a new individual; as, the germ of a fetus, of a plant or flower, and the like; the earliest form under which an organism appears. In the entire process in which a new being originates . . . two distinct classes of action participate; namely, the act of generation by which the germ is produced; and the act of development, by which that germ is evolved into the complete organism. --Carpenter. 2. That from which anything springs; origin; first principle; as, the germ of civil liberty. Disease germ (Biol.), a name applied to certain tiny bacterial organisms or their spores, such as Anthrax bacillus and the Micrococcus of fowl cholera, which have been demonstrated to be the cause of certain diseases. See Germ theory (below). Germ cell (Biol.), the germ, egg, spore, or cell from which the plant or animal arises. At one time a part of the body of the parent, it finally becomes detached,and by a process of multiplication and growth gives rise to a mass of cells, which ultimately form a new individual like the parent. See Ovum. Germ gland. (Anat.) See Gonad. Germ stock (Zo["o]l.), a special process on which buds are developed in certain animals. See Doliolum. Germ theory (Biol.), the theory that living organisms can be produced only by the evolution or development of living germs or seeds. See Biogenesis, and Abiogenesis. As applied to the origin of disease, the theory claims that the zymotic diseases are due to the rapid development and multiplication of various bacteria, the germs or spores of which are either contained in the organism itself, or transferred through the air or water. See Fermentation theory., Neptunian Nep*tu"ni*an, a. [L. Neptunius belonging to Neptune: cf. F. neptunien.] 1. Of or pertaining to the ocean or sea. 2. (Geol.) Formed by water or aqueous solution; as, Neptunian rocks. Neptunian races (Ethnol.), the Malay and Polynesian races. Neptunian theory (Geol.), the theory of Werner, which referred the formation of all rocks and strata to the agency of water; -- opposed to the Plutonic theory., Plutonic Plu*ton"ic, a. [Cf. F. plutonique. See Pluto.] 1. Of or pertaining to Pluto; Plutonian; hence, pertaining to the interior of the earth; subterranean. 2. Of, pertaining to, or designating, the system of the Plutonists; igneous; as, the Plutonic theory. Plutonic action (Geol.), the influence of volcanic heat and other subterranean forces under pressure. Plutonic rocks (Geol.), granite, porphyry, and some other igneous rocks, supposed to have consolidated from a melted state at a great depth from the surface. Cf. Intrusive rocks, under Intrusive. Plutonic theory. (Geol.) See Plutonism., Side-chain theory Side"-chain` the`o*ry (Physiol. Chem.) A theory proposed by Ehrlich as a chemical explanation of immunity phenomena. In brief outline it is as follows: Animal cells and bacteria are complex aggregations of molecules, which are themselves complex. Complex molecules react with one another through certain of their side chains, but only when these side chains have a definite correspondence in structure (this account for the specific action of antitoxins)., Dualistic Du`al*is"tic, a. Consisting of two; pertaining to dualism or duality. Dualistic system or theory (Chem.), the theory, originated by Lavoisier and developed by Berzelius, that all definite compounds are binary in their nature, and consist of two distinct constituents, themselves simple or complex, and possessed of opposite chemical or electrical affinities., Glacial Gla"cial, a. [L. glacialis, from glacies ice: cf. F. glacial.] 1. Pertaining to ice or to its action; consisting of ice; frozen; icy; esp., pertaining to glaciers; as, glacial phenomena. --Lyell. 2. (Chem.) Resembling ice; having the appearance and consistency of ice; -- said of certain solid compounds; as, glacial phosphoric or acetic acids. Glacial acid (Chem.), an acid of such strength or purity as to crystallize at an ordinary temperature, in an icelike form; as acetic or carbolic acid. Glacial drift (Geol.), earth and rocks which have been transported by moving ice, land ice, or icebergs; bowlder drift. Glacial epoch or period (Geol.), a period during which the climate of the modern temperate regions was polar, and ice covered large portions of the northern hemisphere to the mountain tops. Glacial theory or hypothesis. (Geol.) See Glacier theory, under Glacier., Transmissionist Trans*mis"sion*ist, n. An adherent of a theory, the transmission theory, that the brain serves to ``transmit,' rather than to originate, conclusions, and hence that consciousness may exist independently of the brain., Undulatory Un"du*la*to*ry (?; 277), a. [Cf. F. ondulatoire.] Moving in the manner of undulations, or waves; resembling the motion of waves, which successively rise or swell rise or swell and fall; pertaining to a propagated alternating motion, similar to that of waves. Undulatory theory, or Wave theory (of light) (Opt.), that theory which regards its various phenomena as due to undulations in an ethereal medium, propagated from the radiant with immense, but measurable, velocities, and producing different impressions on the retina according to their amplitude and frequency, the sensation of brightness depending on the former, that of color on the latter. The undulations are supposed to take place, not in the direction of propagation, as in the air waves constituting sound, but transversely, and the various phenomena of refraction, polarization, interference, etc., are attributable to the different affections of these undulations in different circumstances of propagation. It is computed that the frequency of the undulations corresponding to the several colors of the spectrum ranges from 458 millions of millions per second for the extreme red ray, to 727 millions of millions for the extreme violet, and their lengths for the same colors, from the thirty-eight thousandth to the sixty thousandth part of an inch. The theory of ethereal undulations is applicable not only to the phenomena of light, but also to those of heat., Unitary U"nit*a*ry, a. 1. Of or pertaining to a unit or units; relating to unity; as, the unitary method in arithmetic. 2. Of the nature of a unit; not divided; united. Unitary theory (Chem.), the modern theory that the molecules of all complete compounds are units, whose parts are bound together in definite structure, with mutual and reciprocal influence on each other, and are not mere aggregations of more or less complex groups; -- distinguished from the dualistic theory., Vortex theory Vortex theory (Chem. & Physics) The theory, advanced by Thomson (Lord Kelvin) on the basis of investigation by Helmholtz, that the atoms are vortically moving ring-shaped masses (or masses of other forms having a similar internal motion) of a homogeneous, incompressible, frictionless fluid. Various properties of such atoms ( vortex atoms) can be mathematically deduced., Undulatory Un"du*la*to*ry (?; 277), a. [Cf. F. ondulatoire.] Moving in the manner of undulations, or waves; resembling the motion of waves, which successively rise or swell rise or swell and fall; pertaining to a propagated alternating motion, similar to that of waves. Undulatory theory, or Wave theory (of light) (Opt.), that theory which regards its various phenomena as due to undulations in an ethereal medium, propagated from the radiant with immense, but measurable, velocities, and producing different impressions on the retina according to their amplitude and frequency, the sensation of brightness depending on the former, that of color on the latter. The undulations are supposed to take place, not in the direction of propagation, as in the air waves constituting sound, but transversely, and the various phenomena of refraction, polarization, interference, etc., are attributable to the different affections of these undulations in different circumstances of propagation. It is computed that the frequency of the undulations corresponding to the several colors of the spectrum ranges from 458 millions of millions per second for the extreme red ray, to 727 millions of millions for the extreme violet, and their lengths for the same colors, from the thirty-eight thousandth to the sixty thousandth part of an inch. The theory of ethereal undulations is applicable not only to the phenomena of light, but also to those of heat.