Chlorine Chlo"rine, n. [Gr. ? pale green, greenish yellow. So named from its color. See Yellow.] (Chem.) One of the elementary substances, commonly isolated as a greenish yellow gas, two and one half times as heavy as air, of an intensely disagreeable suffocating odor, and exceedingly poisonous. It is abundant in nature, the most important compound being common salt. It is powerful oxidizing, bleaching, and disinfecting agent. Symbol Cl. Atomic weight, 35.4. Chlorine family, the elements fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine, called the halogens, and classed together from their common peculiarities., Altar Al"tar, n. [OE. alter, auter, autier, fr. L. altare, pl. altaria, altar, prob. fr. altus high: cf. OF. alter, autier, F. autel. Cf. Altitude.] 1. A raised structure (as a square or oblong erection of stone or wood) on which sacrifices are offered or incense burned to a deity. Noah builded an altar unto the Lord. --Gen. viii. 20. 2. In the Christian church, a construction of stone, wood, or other material for the celebration of the Holy Eucharist; the communion table. Note: Altar is much used adjectively, or as the first part of a compound; as, altar bread or altar-bread. Altar cloth or Altar-cloth, the cover for an altar in a Christian church, usually richly embroidered. Altar cushion, a cushion laid upon the altar in a Christian church to support the service book. Altar frontal. See Frontal. Altar rail, the railing in front of the altar or communion table. Altar screen, a wall or partition built behind an altar to protect it from approach in the rear. Altar tomb, a tomb resembling an altar in shape, etc. Family altar, place of family devotions. To lead (as a bride) to the altar, to marry; -- said of a woman., Happy Hap"py, a. [Compar. Happier; superl. Happiest.] [From Hap chance.] 1. Favored by hap, luck, or fortune; lucky; fortunate; successful; prosperous; satisfying desire; as, a happy expedient; a happy effort; a happy venture; a happy omen. Chymists have been more happy in finding experiments than the causes of them. --Boyle. 2. Experiencing the effect of favorable fortune; having the feeling arising from the consciousness of well-being or of enjoyment; enjoying good of any kind, as peace, tranquillity, comfort; contented; joyous; as, happy hours, happy thoughts. Happy is that people, whose God is the Lord. --Ps. cxliv. 15. The learned is happy Nature to explore, The fool is happy that he knows no more. --Pope. 3. Dexterous; ready; apt; felicitous. One gentleman is happy at a reply, another excels in a in a rejoinder. --Swift. Happy family, a collection of animals of different and hostile propensities living peaceably together in one cage. Used ironically of conventional alliances of persons who are in fact mutually repugnant. Happy-go-lucky, trusting to hap or luck; improvident; easy-going. ``Happy-go-lucky carelessness.' --W. Black., Pear Pear (p[^a]r), n. [OE. pere, AS. peru, L. pirum: cf. F. poire. Cf. Perry.] (Bot.) The fleshy pome, or fruit, of a rosaceous tree (Pyrus communis), cultivated in many varieties in temperate climates; also, the tree which bears this fruit. See Pear family, below. Pear blight. (a) (Bot.) A name of two distinct diseases of pear trees, both causing a destruction of the branches, viz., that caused by a minute insect (Xyleborus pyri), and that caused by the freezing of the sap in winter. --A. J. Downing. (b) (Zo["o]l.) A very small beetle (Xyleborus pyri) whose larv[ae] bore in the twigs of pear trees and cause them to wither. Pear family (Bot.), a suborder of rosaceous plants (Pome[ae]), characterized by the calyx tube becoming fleshy in fruit, and, combined with the ovaries, forming a pome. It includes the apple, pear, quince, service berry, and hawthorn. Pear gauge (Physics), a kind of gauge for measuring the exhaustion of an air-pump receiver; -- so called because consisting in part of a pear-shaped glass vessel. Pear shell (Zo["o]l.), any marine gastropod shell of the genus Pyrula, native of tropical seas; -- so called from the shape. Pear slug (Zo["o]l.), the larva of a sawfly which is very injurious to the foliage of the pear tree., Rose de Pompadour, Rose du Barry, names succesively given to a delicate rose color used on S[`e]vres porcelain. Rose diamond, a diamond, one side of which is flat, and the other cut into twenty-four triangular facets in two ranges which form a convex face pointed at the top. Cf. Brilliant, n. Rose ear. See under Ear. Rose elder (Bot.), the Guelder-rose. Rose engine, a machine, or an appendage to a turning lathe, by which a surface or wood, metal, etc., is engraved with a variety of curved lines. --Craig. Rose family (Bot.) the Rosece[ae]. See Rosaceous. Rose fever (Med.), rose cold. Rose fly (Zo["o]l.), a rose betle, or rose chafer. Rose gall (Zo["o]l.), any gall found on rosebushes. See Bedeguar. Rose knot, a ribbon, or other pliade band plaited so as to resemble a rose; a rosette. Rose lake, Rose madder, a rich tint prepared from lac and madder precipitated on an earthy basis. --Fairholt. Rose mallow. (Bot.) (a) A name of several malvaceous plants of the genus Hibiscus, with large rose-colored flowers. (b) the hollyhock. Rose nail, a nail with a convex, faceted head. Rose noble, an ancient English gold coin, stamped with the figure of a rose, first struck in the reign of Edward III., and current at 6s. 8d. --Sir W. Scott. Rose of China. (Bot.) See China rose (b), under China. Rose of Jericho (Bot.), a Syrian cruciferous plant (Anastatica Hierochuntica) which rolls up when dry, and expands again when moistened; -- called also resurrection plant. Rose of Sharon (Bot.), an ornamental malvaceous shrub (Hibiscus Syriacus). In the Bible the name is used for some flower not yet identified, perhaps a Narcissus, or possibly the great lotus flower. Rose oil (Chem.), the yellow essential oil extracted from various species of rose blossoms, and forming the chief part of attar of roses. Rose pink, a pigment of a rose color, made by dyeing chalk or whiting with a decoction of Brazil wood and alum; also, the color of the pigment. Rose quartz (Min.), a variety of quartz which is rose-red. Rose rash. (Med.) Same as Roseola. Rose slug (Zo["o]l.), the small green larva of a black sawfly (Selandria ros[ae]). These larv[ae] feed in groups on the parenchyma of the leaves of rosebushes, and are often abundant and very destructive. Rose window (Arch.), a circular window filled with ornamental tracery. Called also Catherine wheel, and marigold window. Cf. wheel window, under Wheel. Summer rose (Med.), a variety of roseola. See Roseola. Under the rose [a translation of L. sub rosa], in secret; privately; in a manner that forbids disclosure; -- the rose being among the ancients the symbol of secrecy, and hung up at entertainments as a token that nothing there said was to be divulged. Wars of the Roses (Eng. Hist.), feuds between the Houses of York and Lancaster, the white rose being the badge of the House of York, and the red rose of the House of Lancaster., Subfamily Sub*fam"i*ly, n. (Biol.) One of the subdivisions, of more importance than genus, into which certain families are divided., Superfamily Su"per*fam`i*ly, n. (Zo["o]l.) A group intermediate between a family and a suborder.